Database Search

qfaults web comp

Partial Report for San Andreas fault zone, Cholame-Carrizo section (Class A) No. 1g

Brief Report ||Complete Report

Compiled in cooperation with the California Geological Survey

citation for this record: Bryant, W.A., and Lundberg, M.Matthew, compilers, 2002, Fault number 1g, San Andreas fault zone, Cholame-Carrizo section, in Quaternary fault and fold database of the United States: U.S. Geological Survey website, http://earthquakes.usgs.gov/hazards/qfaults, accessed 07/30/2014 01:00 AM.

Synopsis General: The 1,100-km-long San Andreas fault zone is the principal element of the San Andreas fault system, a network of faults with predominantly dextral strike-slip displacement that collectively accommodates the majority of relative N-S motion between the North American and Pacific plates. Major elements of the San Andreas fault system include the Bartlett Springs [29], Maacama [30], Rodgers Creek [32], Green Valley [37], Calaveras [54], Hayward [55], San Gregorio [60], San Jacinto [125], Elsinore [126], and Imperial [132] fault zones. In this compilation, the San Andreas fault zone is considered to be the Holocene and historically active dextral strike-slip fault that extends along most of coastal California from its complex junction with the Mendocino fault zone [18] on the north, southeast to the northern Transverse Range and inland to the Salton Sea, where a well-defined zone of seismicity (the Brawley Seismic Zone [124]) transfers slip to the Imperial fault [132] along a right-releasing step. Two major surface-rupturing earthquakes have occurred in historic time: the 1857 Fort Tejon (Sieh, 1978 #5775) and 1906 San Francisco (Lawson, 1908 #4969) earthquakes. Additional historic surface rupturing earthquakes include the unnamed 1812 earthquake along the Mojave section [1h] (Jacoby and others, 1988 #4962; Sieh and others, 1989 #5779; Fumal and others, 2002 #5726) and the northern part of the San Bernardino Mountains section [1i] (Weldon and Sieh, 1985 #5806; Jacoby and others, 1987 #4961; 1988 #4962), and a large earthquake in the San Francisco Bay area that occurred in 1838 that was probably on the Peninsula section [1c] of the San Andreas fault (Toppozada and Borchardt, 1998 #5493; Bakun, 1999 #4790). Historic fault creep at rates as high as 32 mm/yr characterizes the 132-km-long Creeping section [1e] in central California (Burford and Harsh, 1980 #4806). The creep rate gradually tapers off to 0 mm/yr at the northwestern and southeastern ends of this section. The northern and southern ends of the Creeping section [1e] are transitional to the surface-rupture termination points of the 1906 earthquake to the north and 1857 earthquake to the south. Creep at rates as high as 4 mm/yr also has been measured on the Coachella section [1j] (Sieh and Williams, 1990 #5780). The San Andreas fault zone is the most extensively studied fault in California, and perhaps in the world. The fault zone first gained international scientific attention immediately following the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Lawson's 1908 report summarizing the investigation of the 1906 earthquake contained the first integrated description of the San Andreas fault, which was recognized as extending from Point Delgada in the north to Whitewater Canyon southeast of San Bernardino in the south, and formed the underlying basis for our modern studies of paleoseismology and earthquake geology (Prentice, 1999 #5755). More than 5,000 articles, maps, and publications describing various aspects of the San Andreas fault that have been produced since Lawson's pioneering work. In addition, there are about 1,000 site-specific fault rupture investigation reports (and maps) filed with the California Geological Survey in compliance with the Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning Act (Hart and Bryant, 1997 #4856). For this compilation, 43 detailed paleoseismic study sites along the fault zone are summarized. The fastest, generally accepted Holocene slip rate for the San Andreas fault is along the Cholame-Carrizo section [1g], which lies in the medial portion of the 1,100-km-long fault zone. Here, Sieh and Jahns (1984 #5778) reported a preferred late Holocene dextral slip rate of 33.9?2.9 mm/yr. In and south of the San Francisco Bay area, a significant portion of dextral slip is partitioned onto several faults of the San Andreas fault system, including the San Gregorio [60] on the west, and the Calaveras [54] and Hayward [55] faults on the east. Hall and others (1999 #4954) reported a late Holocene slip rate of 17?4 mm/yr for the Peninsula section [1c]. North of the Golden Gate, dextral slip from the San Gregorio fault zone [60] may be transferred to the North Coast section [1b] along a right-releasing step. Reported late Holocene slip rates for the North Coast section [1b] range from a minimum value of 16-18 mm/yr reported by Noller and others (1996 #5748) to a maximum value of 25.5?2.5 mm/yr reported by Prentice (1989 #5754). To the south, the San Andreas fault zone is delineated by an extremely complex zone of dextral strike-slip, reverse-oblique, and thrust faults in the southeastern Transverse Ranges. Fault nomenclature in the San Gorgonio Pass area is complex and different workers have assigned faults different names. West-northwest of San Gorgonio Pass Dibblee (1964 #1340; 1968 #4817; 1982 #4841) termed the principal active strand of the San Andreas fault located along the foot of the San Bernardino Mountains the South Branch San Andreas fault, which is referred to as the San Andreas fault by Allen (1957 #4787) and San Bernardino strand San Andreas fault by Matti and others (1992 #5735). For this compilation, this strand will be referred to as the San Andreas fault (South Branch). A fault that strikes sub-parallel located to the north was called the North Branch San Andreas fault by Dibblee (1964 #1340; 1968 #4817) and is referred to as the Mill Creek fault by Allen (1957 #4787), Matti and others (1992 #5735), and Jennings (1994 #2878). This strand will be referred to as the Mill Creek fault in this compilation. East-southeast of San Gorgonio Pass two principal dextral strike-slip faults comprise the Holocene active San Andreas fault zone. The southern trace has been referred to as the South Branch San Andreas fault by Dibblee (1967 #1345; 1981 #4840) and Jennings (1994 #2878); Matti and others (1992 #5735) refer to this trace as the Coachella Valley segment, Banning fault. This branch will be referred to as the South Branch San Andreas fault (Banning strand) in this compilation. The northern trace is referred to as the North Branch San Andreas fault by Dibblee (1967 #1345; 1981 #4840) and Jennings (1994 #2878); Mission Creek fault by Allen (1957 #4787); Matti and others (1992 #5735) named this trace the Coachella Valley segment, San Andreas fault and will be referred to as the North Branch San Andreas fault (Coachella strand) in this compilation. Refer to Matti and others (1992 #5735) for a detailed discussion of San Andreas fault nomenclature for the Mojave [1h], San Bernardino [1i], and Coachella [1j] sections. Weldon and Sieh (1985 #5806) reported a Holocene slip rate of 24?4 mm/yr at the northern end of the San Bernardino Mountains section [1i]. Harden and Matti (1989 #4955) reported a preferred Holocene slip rate of 14 mm/yr to 25 mm/yr near Yucaipa along the San Andreas fault (South Branch). Keller and others (1982 #4964) reported a preferred late Quaternary slip rate of 23 mm/yr to 35 mm/yr for the Coachella section [1j] near Biskra Palms. Surface-exposure age constraints (10Be-26Al) of the offset alluvial fan complex at Biskra Palms yields a better constrained late Quaternary dextral slip rate of 23.3?3.5 mm/yr (van der Woerd and others, 2001 #5800). Several average values of recurrence have been reported for the fault zone; in general they range from a little more than 100 to as much as 450 yr. The North Coast section [1b] ranges from 180-260 yr (Niemi and Hall, 1992 #5747) to 200-400 yr for the past 2 k.y. (Prentice, 1989 #5754). The Santa Cruz Mountains section [1d] is 247-266 yr (Schwartz and others, 1998 #5771) and the Cholame-Carrizo section [1g] is 160-450 yr (Sieh and Jahns, 1984 #5778; Grant and Sieh, 1994 #4950; Sims, 1994 #5787; Stone and others, 2002 #5792). Recurrence intervals for the Mojave section [1h] are well-constrained based on paleoseismic studies by Sieh and others (1989 #5779), Biasi and others (2002 #5724) and Fumal and others (1993 #624; 2002 #5725). Sieh and others (1989 #5779) reported an average recurrence interval of 132 yr for the time interval 734 A. D. to 1857 at Pallett Creek, whereas Biasi and others (2002 #5724) refined the average recurrence interval at 135 yr. Fumal and others (2002 #5725) reported an average recurrence interval of 105 yr for the past 500 yr at Wrightwood. An average recurrence interval of 150-275 yr has been reported for the northern San Bernardino Mountains section by Weldon and Sieh (1985 #5806), Seitz and Weldon (1994 #5772), and Yule and others (2001 #4948). The Coachella section [1j] averages large earthquakes about 207-233 yr based on Sieh (1986 #5777).

Sections: This fault has 10 sections. From north to south they are the Shelter Cove [1a], North Coast [1b], Peninsula [1c], Santa Cruz Mountains [1d], Creeping [1e], Parkfield [1f], Cholame-Carrizo [1g], Mojave [1h], San Bernardino Mountains [1i], and Coachella [1j] sections. Different behavior patterns along different parts of the San Andreas fault where first noticed when Steinbrugge and Zacher (1960 #5791) documented creep along the fault in central California. Since that time, other workers have proposed various segmentation models for the San Andreas fault including five segments by Allen (1968 #4788), eight segments by Wallace (1970 #1423), 12 segments by Sykes and Nishenko (1984 #5794), Petersen and others (1996 #4860), the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (1988 #5494; 1995 #4945; 1999 #4946), and the Working Group on Northern California Earthquake Probabilities (1996 #1216). Some segment boundaries are well documented or constrained for the San Andreas fault zone, whereas others are not. For this compilation, boundaries generally are similar to those described in models adopted by the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (1988 #5494; 1990 #549; 1995 #4945; 1999 #4946), the Working Group on Northern California Earthquake Probabilities (1996 #1216), and Petersen and others (1996 #4860).
County(s) and State(s) MONTEREY COUNTY, CALIFORNIA
LOS ANGELES COUNTY, CALIFORNIA
KERN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA
SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA
Physiographic province(s) BASIN AND RANGE
PACIFIC BORDER
Reliability of location Good
Compiled at 1:62,500 scale.
Geologic setting The San Andreas fault zone is a major dextral strike-slip fault zone that extends for about 1,100 km along the western side of California. It is near the coast in northern California, but stays entirely inland to the south of San Francisco, extending all the way to the northern Gulf of California in Mexico. The San Andreas fault zone is the principal element of a network of dextral strike-slip faults that constitute the San Andreas fault system that collectively accommodates the majority of relative N-S motion between the Pacific and North American plates (Wallace, 1990 #5804). Wilson (1965 #4947) first proposed that the San Andreas fault was a transform fault connecting two spreading oceanic ridges between the Pacific and North American plates. The San Andreas fault zone extends from the Salton Trough near Bombay Beach northwest to its complex junction with the Mendocino fault zone [18] near Punta Gorda. At the southern end of the fault zone near Bombay Beach, dextral slip is transferred to the Imperial fault [132] along a right-releasing step-over delineated by a zone of seismicity referred to as the Brawley Seismic Zone [124]. The San Andreas fault traverses the length of the Coast Ranges geomorphic subprovince and forms the boundary between the Transverse Range and Mojave Desert geomorphic subprovinces as well as the boundary between the Salton Trough and Mojave Desert geomorphic subprovinces. Noble (1926 #1592) was the first to suggest a large amount of dextral slip (38 km) on the San Andreas fault. Hill and Dibblee (1953 #923) postulated that as much as 560 km of dextral slip has occurred on the basis of proposed correlation of Mesozoic basement rocks. Post-early Miocene cumulative dextral slip is approximately 315 km, based on correlation of the Neenach Volcanic Formation (22.5-24.1 Ma minimum K-Ar age reported in Sims, 1993 #5786) on the east side of the fault zone with early Miocene Pinnacles Formation (24.2?0.5 Ma average K-Ar age reported in Sims, 1993 #5786) on the west side of the fault (Matthews, 1976 #931). Stanley (1987 #5790) reported 325-330 km of post late Oligocene dextral slip and 320-325 km of post-early Miocene dextral slip. Further discussions of the displacement history the San Andreas fault zone are included in Powell (1993 #5753), Weldon and others (1993 #5807), and Matti and Morton (1993 #5737).

Length (km) This section is 201 km of a total fault length of 1082 km.
Average strike N66°W (for section) versus (for whole fault)
Sense of movement Dextral
Dip Direction V
Paleoseismology studies This section of the San Andreas fault is one of the best studied. Since 1984, ten sites have been investigated.

LY4 site (1-17). Studies by Stone and others (2002 #5792) involved the excavation of one fault normal trench on the distal end of an alluvial fan at the LY4 site, exposing evidence for three and possibly four surface-rupturing earthquakes, although 14C dates only constrain the age of a paleosol about 50 cm below the oldest event horizon, indicating there have been at least three surface rupturing events since 1058-1291 A. D. The study by Young and others (2002 #5810) involved the excavation of five fault normal and two fault parallel trenches at the LY4 site in order to document event chronology and measure dextral displacement associated with the 1857 earthquake.

Wallace Creek site (1-19). Studies by Sieh and Jahns (1984 #5778) involved the excavation of seven fault normal and three fault parallel trenches at the Wallace Creek site. Wallace Creek is a dextrally displaced Holocene stream channel. Detailed trenching, stratigraphic interpretation, and reconstruction of stream channel and related landforms allowed Sieh and Jahns (1984 #5778) to calculate Holocene and late Holocene slip rates and recurrence intervals for the Carrizo section.

Phelan Creek site (1-20). Sims (1994 #5787) excavated 11 trenches and conducted detailed geomorphic and geologic mapping at the Phelan Creek site in order to identify individual surface fault rupturing earthquakes. Phelan Creek is characterized by dextrally offset drainages, an older, abandoned and in-filled stream channel, and beheaded drainages. Sims (1994 #5787) developed a stream depositional model assuming that progressive dextral displacements of stream channels during large surface rupturing earthquakes are large enough to cause perturbations in stream channel deposition that should be recognizable by unconformity-bounded sedimentary units, thus constraining timing of large surface rupturing events. Sims (1994 #5787) used this model to identify five and possibly six late Holocene earthquakes.

Phelan fan site (1-21). Studies by Grant and Sieh (1993 #4949) involved the excavation of three fault parallel and two fault normal trenches at the Phelan fan site. The site is characterized by a dextrally offset stream channel that has incised into an alluvial fan. The principal goal of this study was to accurately determine the amount of dextral slip associated with the 1857 earthquake at the site. They reported a preferred 1857 dextral slip of 6.6-6.9 m.

Bidart fan site (1-22). Grant and Sieh (1994 #4950) excavated three fault normal trenches across the historically active Cholame-Carrizo section at the Bidart fan site in order to better constrain the timing of past large surface rupturing earthquakes in this section. Prentice and Sieh (1989 #5757) previously had excavated a trench at this same site. Trenching at the Bidart fan site, located on an aggrading alluvial fan, exposed evidence of at least seven late Holocene surface-rupturing earthquakes. The interpretation of evidence at the Bidart fan paleoseismic study site lead Grant and Sieh (1994 #4950) to challenge the concept of that the Carrizo segment is an unusually strong segment characterized by long recurrence intervals and large displacements.

Investigations at three paleoseismic sites are collectively reported in Davis and Duebendorfer (1982 #4813):

Smith Flat site (1-23). Davis and Duebendorfer (1982 #4813) excavated two trenches at the Smith Flat site. Apparent vertical separation of 5.5 m of deposits exposed in the trenches suggested four to nine 1857-sized paleoearthquakes, assuming that vertical separation was similar in all events. No dateable material was recovered, so timing of events was not determined.

San Emigdio Creek (Mil Potrero) site (1-24). Davis and Duebendorfer (1982 #4813) excavated one trench at the San Emigdio Creek site; this site has also been referred to as the Mil Potrero site by Grant and Sieh (1994 #4950) and Arrowsmith and others (1997 #5816). One trench was excavated across a terrace remnant in the San Emigdio Creek drainage where three surface-rupturing earthquakes, including the 1857 event, were identified.

Cuddy Valley site (1-25). Davis and Duebendorfer (1982 #4813) excavated two trenches at the Cuddy Valley site. The trench site, located on an alluvial fan surface, showed evidence of 3 major surface-rupturing earthquakes, but lacked datable material and an event chronology.

Frazier Mountain site (1-26). Studies by Lindvall and others (2002 #5729) involved the excavation of one fault normal trench within a closed depression at the Frazier Mountain site in order to document event chronology. They exposed faulted late Holocene sediment with evidence of two surface-rupturing earthquakes.

Three Points (site 1-18). Studies by Rust (1982 #5765) involved the excavation of three trenches at two sites in the vicinity of Three Points. One trench was excavated in ponded alluvial deposits at the mouth of Garden Gulch, exposing a succession of four discrete faulting events, including the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake. Landslide deposits were trenched at the Oak Flat site, where a dextrally offset stream channel and ponded alluvial deposits yielded potential slip-rate information.

Geomorphic expression The Cholame-Carrizo section is delineated by well-defined geomorphic features characteristic of Holocene dextral offset such as dextrally deflected and offset drainages, dextrally offset ridges, linear drainages and ridges, aligned saddles and benches, closed depressions, linear scarps on alluvium, linear troughs, sidehill benches, shutter ridges, and linear vegetation contrasts (Ross, 1969 #487; Vedder and Wallace, 1970 #486; Barrows and others, 1985 #4796; Manson, 1985 #5732; Davis and Duebendorfer, 1987 #4814).

Age of faulted surficial deposits The San Andreas fault at the Wallace Creek site (1-19) offsets latest Pleistocene to late Holocene fluvial and colluvial deposits. Using 14C dating Sieh and Jahns (1984 #5778) documented ages (calendric age) of offset alluvium that range from 19,340?1,000 14C yr BP to 1,035?235 14C yr BP. Faulted late Holocene alluvial fan and fluvial deposits at the Bidart fan site (1-22) were dated using AMS 14C of detrital charcoal, charred grasses, and a shell (Grant and Sieh, 1994 #4950). Calendar year dates ranged from 1465 A. D. to 1029 A. D.
Historic earthquake Fort Tejon earthquake 1857
Most recent prehistoric deformation Latest Quaternary (<15 ka)
Recurrence interval 100-450 yr (late Holocene)
Slip-rate category Greater than 5.0 mm/yr
Date and Compiler(s) 2002
William A. Bryant, California Geological Survey
Matthew Lundberg, California Geological Survey
References #4787 Allen, C.R., 1957, San Andreas fault zone in San Gorgonio Pass, southern California: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 68, no. 3, p. 315-350.

#4788 Allen, C.R., 1968, The tectonic environments of seismically active and inactive areas along the San Andreas fault system, in Dickinson, W.R., and Grantz, A., eds., Proceedings of conference on geologic problems of San Andreas fault system: Palo Alto, California, Stanford University Publications, Geological Sciences, v. XI, p. 70-82.

#4789 Anderson, F.M., 1899, The geology of Point Reyes Peninsula: Berkeley, California, University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, v. 2, p. 119-153.

#5816 Arrowsmith, R., McNally, K., and Davis, J., 1997, Potential for earthquake rupture and M 7 earthquakes along the Parkfield, Cholame, and Carrizo segments of the San Andreas fault: Seismological Research Letters, v. 68, no. 6, p. 902-916.

#4790 Bakun, W.H., 1999, Seismic activity of the San Francisco Bay region: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 89, no. 3, p. 764-784.

#4796 Barrows, A.G., Kahle, J.E., and Beeby, D.J., 1985, Earthquake hazards and tectonic history of the San Andreas fault zone, Los Angeles County, California: California Division of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 85-10 LA, 139 p., 19 pls., scale 1:12,000.

#5724 Biasi, G.P., Weldon, R.J., II, Fumal, T.E., and Seitz, G.G., 2002, Paleoseismic event dating and the conditional probability of large earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault, California: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Special Issue on Paleoseismology of the San Andreas Fault System, v. 92, no. 7, p. 2761-2781.

#4806 Burford, R.O., and Harsh, P.W., 1980, Slip on the San Andreas fault in central California from alignment array surveys: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 70, no. 4, p. 1233-1261.

#4813 Davis, T., and Duebendorfer, E., 1982, Surficial structure and geomorphology of the San Andreas fault, western portion of the Big Bend—Field trip number 14, in Cooper, J.D., ed., Neotectonics in southern California: Geological Society of America, Anaheim, California, April 19-21, 1982, Guidebook, p. 77-106.

#4814 Davis, T.L., and Duebendorfer, E., 1987, Strip map of the San Andreas fault, western Big Bend segment: Geological Society of America Map and Chart Series MC-60, 6 p. pamphlet, 2 sheets, scale 1:31,682.

#1340 Dibblee, T.W., Jr., 1964, Geologic map of the San Gorgonio Mountain quadrangle San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations Map I-431, 3 p. pamphlet, 1 sheet, scale 1:62,500.

#1345 Dibblee, T.W., Jr., 1967, Geologic map of the Morongo Valley quadrangle San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations Map I-517, 4 p. pamphlet, 1 sheet, scale 1:62,500.

#1345 Dibblee, T.W., Jr., 1967, Geologic map of the Morongo Valley quadrangle San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations Map I-517, 4 p. pamphlet, 1 sheet, scale 1:62,500.

#4817 Dibblee, T.W., Jr., 1968, Displacements on the San Andreas fault system in San Gabriel, San Bernardino, and San Jacinto Mountains, southern California, in Dickinson, W.R., and Grantz, A., eds., Proceedings of conference on geologic problems of San Andreas fault system: Palo Alto, California, Stanford University Publications in Geological Sciences, v. XI, p. 269-278.

#4824 Dibblee, T.W., Jr., 1971, Geologic map of the Ventucopa 15-minute quadrangle, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Map, 1 pl., scale 1:62,500.

#4826 Dibblee, T.W., Jr., 1972, Geologic maps of fourteen 15-minute quadrangles along the San Andreas fault in the vicinity of Paso Robles and Cholame southeastward to Maricopa and Cuyama, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 72-089, 14 sheets, scale 1:62,500.

#4825 Dibblee, T.W., Jr., 1972, Geologic map of the La Panza quadrangle, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Map, 1 pl., scale 1:62,500.

#4830 Dibblee, T.W., Jr., 1974, Geologic map of the Shandon and Orchard Peak quadrangles, San Luis Obispo and Kern Counties, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map I-0788, 2 sheets, scale 1:62,500.

#4840 Dibblee, T.W., Jr., 1981, Geologic map of the Palm Springs (15 minute) quadrangle, California: South Coast Geological Society, Geologic Map SCGS-3, scale 1:62,500.

#4841 Dibblee, T.W., Jr., 1982, Geology of the San Bernardino Mountains, southern California, in Fife, D.L., and Minch, J.A., eds., Geology and mineral wealth of the California Transverse Ranges—Mason Hill Volume: South Coast Geological Society Guidebook 10, p. 148-169.

#5726 Fumal, T.E., Rymer, M.J., and Seitz, G.G., 2002, Timing of large earthquakes since A.D. 800 on the Mission Creek strand of the San Andreas fault zone at Thousand Palms Oasis, near Palm Springs, California: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Special Issue on Paleoseismology of the San Andreas Fault System, v. 92, no. 7, p. 2841-2860.

#5725 Fumal, T.E., Weldon, R.J., II, Biasi, G.P., Dawson, T.E., Seitz, G.G., Frost, W.T., and Schartz, D.P., 2002, Evidence for large earthquakes on the San Andreas fault at the Wrightwood, California, paleoseismic site—A.D. 500 to present: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Special Issue on Paleoseismology of the San Andreas Fault System, v. 92, no. 7, p. 2726-2760.

#4949 Grant, L.B., and Sieh, K., 1993, Stratigraphic evidence for seven meters of dextral slip on the San Andreas fault during the 1857 earthquake in the Carrizo Plain: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 83, no. 3, p. 619-635.

#4950 Grant, L.B., and Sieh, K., 1994, Paleoseismic evidence of clustered earthquakes on the San Andreas fault in the Carrizo Plain, California: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 99, no. B4, p. 6819-6841.

#4954 Hall, N.T., Wright, R.H., and Clahan, K.B., 1999, Paleoseismic studies of the San Francisco Peninsula segment of the San Andreas fault zone near Woodside, California: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 104, no. B10, p. 23,215-23,236.

#4955 Harden, J.W., and Matti, J.C., 1989, Holocene and late Pleistocene slip rate on the San Andreas fault in Yucaipa, California, using displaced alluvial-fan deposits and soil chronology: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 101, p. 1107-1117.

#4856 Hart, E.W., and Bryant, W.A., 1997, Fault-rupture hazard zones in California: California Division of Mines and Geology Special Report 42, 38 p.

#4957 Hill, D.P., Eaton, J.P., and Jones, L.M., 1990, Seismicity—1980-1986, in Wallace, R.E., ed., The San Andreas fault system: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1515, p. 115-151.

#4958 Hill, M.L., 1981, San Andreas fault—History of concepts: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 92, p. 112-131.

#923 Hill, M.L., and Dibblee, T.W., Jr., 1953, San Andreas, Garlock, and Big Pine faults, California: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 64, p. 443-458.

#4961 Jacoby, G.C., Sheppard, P.R., and Sieh, K.E., 1987, Was the 8 December 1812 California earthquake produced by the San Andreas fault?—Evidence from trees near Wrightwood [abs.]: Seismological Research Letters, v. 58, no. 1, p. 14.

#4962 Jacoby, G.C., Sheppard, P.R., and Sieh, K.E., 1988, Irregular recurrence of large earthquakes along the San Andreas fault—Evidence from trees: Science, v. 241, p. 196-199.

#2878 Jennings, C.W., 1994, Fault activity map of California and adjacent areas, with locations of recent volcanic eruptions: California Division of Mines and Geology Geologic Data Map 6, 92 p., 2 pls., scale 1:750,000.

#4963 Kahle, J.E., and Barrows, A.G., 1980, Fault activity of Three Points and Pine Canyon segments, San Andreas fault zone, Los Angeles County, California: California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 80-13LA, 38 p., scale 1:12,000.

#4964 Keller, E.A., Bonkowski, M.S., Korsch, R.J., and Shlemon, R.J., 1982, Tectonic geomorphology of the San Andreas fault zone in the southern Indio Hills, Coachella Valley, California: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 93, no. 1, p. 46-56.

#4967 Lawson, A.C., 1893, The post-Pliocene diastrophism of the coast of southern California: Berkeley, California, University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, v. 1, p. 115-160.

#4968 Lawson, A.C., 1895, Sketch of the geology of the San Francisco peninsula, California: U.S. Geological Survey Annual Report, v. 15, p. 399-476.

#4969 Lawson, A.C., chairman, 1908, The California earthquake of April 18, 1906, Report of the State earthquake investigation commission: Washington, D.C., Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 87.

#5728 Lienkaemper, J.J., 2001, 1857 slip on the San Andreas fault southeast of Cholame, California: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 91, no. 6, p. 1659-1672.

#5729 Lindvall, S.C., Rockwell, T.K., Dawson, T.E., Helms, J.G., and Weaver-Bowman, K., 2002, Evidence for two surface ruptures in the past 500 years on the San Andreas fault at Frazier Mountain, California: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Special Issue on Paleoseismology of the San Andreas Fault System, v. 92, no. 7, p. 2689-2703.

#5732 Manson, M.W., 1985, San Andreas fault (Middle Mountain-Chalome Valley segment) and San Juan fault (north end), Monterey and San Luis Obispo Counties, California: California Division of Mines and Geology Fault Evaluation Report FER-171, microfiche copy in California Division of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 90-11, 10 p., scale 1:24,000.

#931 Matthews, V., III, 1976, Correlation of Pinnacles and Neenach volcanic formations and their bearing on San Andreas fault problem: Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 60, no. 12, p. 2128-2141.

#5737 Matti, J.C., and Morton, D.M., 1993, Paleogeographic evolution of the San Andreas fault in southern California—A reconstruction based on a new cross-fault correlation, in Powell, R.E., Weldon, R.J., II, and Matti, J.C., ed., The San Andreas fault system—Displacement, palinspastic reconstruction, and geologic evolution: Geological Society of America Memoir 178, p. 107-160.

#5735 Matti, J.C., Morton, D.M., and Cox, B.F., 1992, The San Andreas fault system in the vicinity of the central Transverse Ranges province, southern California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92-354, 49 p., 2 sheets, scale 1:125,000.

#5747 Niemi, T.M., and Hall, N.T., 1992, Late Holocene slip rate and recurrence of great earthquakes on the San Andrea fault in northern California: Geology, v. 20, no. 3, p. 196-198.

#1592 Noble, L.F., 1926, The San Andreas rift and some other active faults in the desert region of southeastern California: Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book 25, p. 415-428.

#5748 Noller, J.S., Simpson, G.D., and Lightfoot, K., 1996, Paleoseismic and geoarchaeologic investigations of the northern San Andreas fault, Fort Ross, California, in National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program, Summaries of technical reports: U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program External Research Program, Annual Project Summaries, v. 37, http://erp-web.er.usgs.gov/reports/annsum/vol37/nc/g2474.htm.

#4860 Petersen, M.D., Bryant, W.A., Cramer, C.H., Cao, T., Reichle, M.S., Frankel, A.D., Lienkaemper, J.J., McCrory, P.A., and Schwartz, D.P., 1996, Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for the State of California: California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 96-08 (also U.S. Geological Open-File Report 96-706), 33 p.

#5753 Powell, R.E., 1993, Balanced palinspastic reconstruction of pre-late Cenozoic paleogeology, southern California—Geologic and kinematic constraints on evolution of the San Andreas fault system, in Powell, R.E., Weldon, R.J., II, and Matti, J.C., ed., The San Andreas Fault System—Displacement, palinspastic reconstruction, and geologic evolution: Geological Society of America Memoir 178, p. 1-106.

#5754 Prentice, C.S., 1989, Earthquake geology of the northern San Andreas fault near Point Arena, California: Pasadena, California, California Institute of Technology, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 252 p.

#5755 Prentice, C.S., 1999, San Andreas fault—1906 earthquake and subsequent evolution of ideas: Geological Society of America Special Paper 338, p. 79-85.

#5757 Prentice, C.S., and Sieh, K.E., 1988, Prehistoric seismic events on the northern San Andreas fault near Point Arena, California [abs.]: Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 69, no. 16, p. 492.

#487 Ross, D.C., 1969, Map showing recently active breaks along the San Andreas fault between Tejon Pass and Cajon Pass, southern California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations I-553, 1 sheet, scale 1:24,000.

#5764 Runnerstrom, E.E., Grant, L.B., Arrowsmith, J.R., Rhodes, D.D., and Stone, E.M., 2002, Displacement across the Chalome segment of the San Andreas fault between 1855 and 1893 from cadastral surveys: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Special Issue on Paleoseismology of the San Andreas Fault System, v. 92, no. 7, p. 2659-2669.

#5765 Rust, D.J., 1982, Trenching studies of the San Andreas fault bordering western Antelope Valley, southern California, in Summaries of Technical Reports, National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 82-840, v. XIV, p. 89-91.

#5769 Schuyler, J.D., 1896-1897, Reservoirs for irrigation: U.S. Geological Survey, 18th Annual Report, part IV, p. 711-712.

#5771 Schwartz, D.P., Pantosti, D., Okumura, K., Powers, T.J., and Hamilton, J.C., 1998, Paleoseismic investigations in the Santa Cruz Mountains, California—Implications for recurrence of large-magnitude earthquakes on the San Andrea fault: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 103, no. B8, p. 17,985-18,001.

#5772 Seitz, G.G., and Weldon, R.J., II, 1994, The paleoseismology of the southern San Andreas fault at Pitman Canyon, San Bernardino, California, in McGill, S.F., and Ross, T.M., eds., Geologic investigations of an active margin: Cordilleran Section Annual Meeting, San Bernardino, California, Field trip guidebook, v. 27, p. 152-156.

#5775 Sieh, K.E., 1978, Large prehistoric earthquakes produced by slip on the San Andreas fault at Pallet Creek, California: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 83, no. B8, p. 3907-3939.

#920 Sieh, K.E., 1978, Slip along the San Andreas fault associated with the great 1857 earthquake: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 68, no. 6, p. 1421-1448.

#5777 Sieh, K.E., 1986, Slip rate across the San Andreas fault and prehistoric earthquakes at Indio, California [abs.]: Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 67, no. 55, p. 1200.

#5778 Sieh, K.E., and Jahns, R.H., 1984, Holocene activity of the San Andreas fault at Wallace Creek, California: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 95, p. 883-896.

#5780 Sieh, K.E., and Williams, P.L., 1990, Behavior of the San Andreas fault during the past 300 years: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 95, no. B5, p. 6629-6645.

#5779 Sieh, K.E., Stuiver, M., and Brillinger, D., 1989, A more precise chronology of earthquakes produced by the San Andreas fault in southern California: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 94, no. B1, p. 603-623.

#5786 Sims, J.D., 1993, Chronology of displacement on the San Andreas fault in central California—Evidence from reversed positions of exotic rock bodies near Parkfield, California, in Powell, R.E., Weldon, R.J., II, and Matti, J.C., ed., The San Andreas fault system—Displacement, palinspastic reconstruction, and geologic evolution: Geological Society of America Memoir 178, p. 231-256.

#5787 Sims, J.D., 1994, Stream channel offset and abandonment and a 200-year average recurrence interval of earthquakes on the San Andreas fault at Phelan Creek, Carrizo Plain, California, in Prentice, C.S., Schwartz, D.P., and Yeats, R.S., ed., Proceedings of the workshop on paleoseismology: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 94-568, p. 170-172.

#5788 Sims, J.D., and Hamilton, J.C., 1991, Geologic map of the Chalome quadrangle, San Luis Obispo County, California: U.S. Geological Survey, Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-2170, scale 1:24,000.

#5790 Stanley, R.G., 1987, New estimates of displacement along the San Andreas fault in central California based on paleobathymetry and paleogeography: Geology, v. 15, no. 2, p. 171-174.

#5791 Steinbrugge, K.V., and Zacher, E.G., 1960, Creep on the San Andreas fault—Fault creep and property damage: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 50, no. 3, p. 389-396.

#5792 Stone, E.M., Grant, L.B., and Arrowsmith, J.R., 2002, Recent rupture history of the San Andreas fault, southwest of Cholame in the northern Carrizo Plain, California: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 92, no. 3, p. 983-997.

#5794 Sykes, L.R., and Nishenko, S.P., 1984, Probabilities of occurrence of large plate rupturing earthquakes for the San Andreas, San Jacinto, and Imperial faults, California: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 89, no. B7, p. 5905-5927.

#5493 Toppozada, T.R., and Borchardt, G., 1998, Re-evaluation of the 1836 "Hayward fault" and the 1938 San Andreas fault earthquakes: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 88, no. 1, p. 140-159.

#5800 van der Woerd, J., Klinger, Y., Sieh, K., Tapponnier, P., and Ryerson, F.J., 2001, First long-term slip rate along the San Andreas fault based on 10Be-26Al surface exposure dating—The Biska Palms site, 23 mm/yr for the last 30,000 years [abs.]: Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 82, p. 934.

#5802 Vedder, J.G., 1970, Geologic map of the Wells Ranch and Elkhorn Hills quadrangles, San Luis Obispo and Kern Counties, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations I-585, scale 1:24,000.

#486 Vedder, J.G., and Wallace, R.E., 1970, Map showing recently active breaks along the San Andreas and related faults between Cholame Valley and Tejon Pass, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations I-574, 2 sheets, scale 1:24,000.

#1423 Wallace, R.E., 1970, Earthquake recurrence intervals on the San Andreas fault: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 81, p. 2875-2890.

#5804 Wallace, R.E., 1990, General features, in Wallace, R.E., ed., The San Andreas fault system: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1515, p. 3-12.

#5806 Weldon, R.J., II, and Sieh, K.E., 1985, Holocene rate of slip and tentative recurrence interval for large earthquakes on the San Andreas fault, Cajon Pass, southern California: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 96, no. 6, p. 793-812.

#5807 Weldon, R.J., II, Meisling, K.E., and Alexander, J., 1993, A speculative history of the San Andreas fault in the central Transverse Ranges, California, in Powell, R.E., Weldon, R.J., II, and Matti, J.C., eds., The San Andreas fault system—Displacement, palinspastic reconstruction, and geologic evolution: Geological Society of America Memoir 178, p. 161-198.

#4947 Wilson, J.T., 1965, A new class of faults and their bearing on continental drift: Nature, v. 207, p. 343-347.

#5494 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1988, Probabilities of large earthquakes occurring in California on the San Andreas fault: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 88-398, 62 p.

#549 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1990, Probabilities of large earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay region, California: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1053, 51 p.

#4945 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1995, Seismic hazards in southern California—Probable earthquakes, 1994 to 2024: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 85, no. 2, p. 379-439.

#4946 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999, Earthquake probabilities in the San Francisco Bay region; 2000 to 2030—A summary of findings: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-517, 60 p.

#1216 Working Group on Northern California Earthquake Potential, 1996, Database of potential sources for earthquakes larger than magnitude 6 in northern California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-705, 40 p.

#5810 Young, J.J., Arrowsmith, J.R., Colini, L., Grant, L.B., and Gootee, B., 2002, 3-D excavation and recent rupture history along the Cholame segment of the San Andreas fault: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Special Issue on Paleoseismology of the San Andreas Fault System, v. 92, no. 7, p. 2670-2688.

#4948 Yule, D., Fumal, T., McGill, S., and Seitz, G., 2001, Active tectonics and paleoseismic record of the San Andreas fault, Wrightwood to Indio: Working toward a forecast for the next "big event", in Dunne, G., and Cooper, J., eds., Geologic excursions in the California deserts and adjacent Transverse Ranges: Geological Society of America Fieldtrip Guidebook and Volume prepared for the Joint Meeting of the Cordilleran Section GSA and Pacific Section AAPG, p. 91-126.